Ghana is a typhoid-endemic country that records an estimated 65,000 cases annually – with majority of the cases being children under 15 years old.

The Global Burden of Disease study estimated that Ghana in 2019 recorded 65,856 typhoid cases and 1,150 typhoid deaths.

There are 9 million cases of typhoid fever annually, resulting in about 110,000 deaths per year, the World Health Organisation’s 2019 estimates show.

What is Tyhoid?

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, primarily spread through contaminated food or water. This report focuses on the prevalence, symptoms, treatment, prevention, and recent developments relating to typhoid fever in Ghana.

The diseases remains a public health problem in many developing areas of the WHO African, Eastern Mediterranean, South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions.

“Urbanization and climate change have the potential to increase the global burden of typhoid. In addition, increasing resistance to antibiotic treatment is making it easier for typhoid to spread in communities that lack access to safe drinking water or adequate sanitation,” the WHO noted.

Symptoms of Typhoid fever

  • Prolonged high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation or diarrhoea.
  • Some patients may develop a rash.
  • Severe cases may lead to complications and, in extreme cases, death.

How to prevent the spread of typhoid fever

  • Focus on environmental safety and hygiene practices.


  • Access to safe water and adequate sanitation, hygiene among food handlers, and typhoid vaccination are effective in preventing typhoid fever.


  • Handwashing with soap and water is crucial, especially after using the bathroom.


  • Those treated for typhoid should avoid preparing or serving food until bacteria are no longer present.


  • Implementation of routine childhood immunization programs.


Treatment and recommendations

  • The typhoid conjugate vaccineis recommended for use in children from 6 months of age and adults up to 45 years or 65 years (depending on the vaccine): The two typhoid conjugate vaccines have been prequalified by WHO since December 2017 and have been introduced into childhood immunization programmes in typhoid-endemic countries.
  • Antibiotics are used for treatment. Antibiotic resistance is common, requiring more complicated and expensive treatment options in highly affected regions. Also, completing the prescribed antibiotics is crucial.


By: Gifty Tracy Aminu